Skopjeans’ Delusion on the Macedonian Issue: Some Linguistic Evidence

Ioannis N. Kallianiotis


The Arthur J.
Kania School
of Management

of Scranton

Scranton, PA 18510-4602





<< Dikaiosuvnhn mavqete oiJ
ejnoikou`nte~ ejpiv th`~ gh`~




Skopjeans’ Delusion on the Macedonian Issue:

Some Linguistic Evidence







The objective of
this work is to provide some information, a few linguistic evidences, and a
scientifically true analysis on the Hellenic (Greek) history and to examine
what the above information means to us and to the civilized world, as a whole.
We will offer some thoughts, some unshaken historic events, and some linguistic
evidence that may help to answer questions concerning today’s conditions in
south-eastern Europe, the borders of the old
“Christendom” (currently, the controlled European Union). It is imperative that
all scholars, politicians, decision makers, students, and intellectual human
beings have this information regarding an artificial state (protectorate), Skopje, created recently between Greece and Serbia, because we are responsible
for all young people of this planet and we must tell them the plain truth in
simple words, away from any expediency, propaganda, and anti-scientific
delusion. This new state has unlawfully chosen the Greek name “Macedonia” for its nation and Greece is
objecting their aggressiveness and their absurd expansionism. It is
historically wrong for them to use Greek names and symbols because they have
nothing in common with Greeks; their language is a Bulgarian dialect and their
old name was Vardarska.





            Hellenic history, language, culture,
and paideia have contributed a great deal to the European and the entire
western civilization that we find their seal everywhere, today. The democracy
of ancient Greece,[1]
the accomplishments of her people,[2]
the great ideas of her moral philosophers,[3]
scientists and artists,[4]
and finally, the dramatic events, which have unfolded in the glorious history
of the Greek nation because of its geographical position and its persistence in
Christian Orthodox truth have always been a source of creative inspiration to
all nations.[5] Greece has
truly improved mankind and has the responsibility to continue this offer to
humanity, especially now, where it is going towards the turbulent last days.


The ancient Hellenic civilization is called the
“classical” one; later the word “classical” became the source of standards by
which subsequent achievements can be measured.[6]
“There is a quality of excellence about Ancient Greece that brooks few
comparisons.”[7]These peoples (Greeks) shared the same language (in an oral and written
and they recognized a common heritage “Hellenes” (
{Ellhne~), which they did not share with other men. They belonged,
as they felt, to “Hellas”.[9]
The non-Greeks were “barbarians”. The achievement and importance of Greece
comprehended all sides of life. “The Greeks did more for future civilization
than any of their predecessors.”[10]  All Europe drew interest on the “capital” Greece laid down, and through Europe
the rest of the world has benefited from what Greeks offered to human
civilization. At the Hellenic city of Aegae
or Vergina (
Aijgaiv[11] h[ Bergivna) was the capital of the Greek Macedonian state.
Alexander (

jAlevxandro~ Filivppou Makedwvn
the son of Philip from Macedonia,
is one of those historical Greek figures called “Great”. He was a passionate
who believed Achilles[13]
was his ancestor and carried with him on his campaigns a treasured copy of
Homer. He had been tutored by Aristotle.[14]
Alexander the Great had a staggering record of success, even though that he
died at the age of 33 years old. The history of Europe
is the history of the Western civilization (a Greek-Christian civilization).[15]
Indisputable, Roman civilization was descended from the earliest Greek
(Hellenic) civilization.[16]Today, the European Union has changed drastically because of so many
influences by different Muslim (anti-Christian) sub-cultures. “European, or
Western, civilization originated from the fusion of German (barbarian) culture
and Roman (Hellenic-Christian) civilization during the Dark Ages from the 5th
to the 10th century A.D.”[17]
Of course, history repeats itself.


            History, scientific truth, divine
justice, morality, international law, and human respect are social necessities
and they require satisfaction. Each man enjoys existence according to his labor
and his life, and by himself he determines his future, his heritage, his nation;
and thus, affects the world. Mutual solidarity, joint responsibility, and real
love are essential not only for the life of families, but also for the history
of nations and the coexistence of this Cosmos (
Kovsmo~ = order, ornament).[18]
Moral, ethical, and uncorrupted leadership is necessary to promote patriotism
and indigenous value system of a sovereign nation.


            Unfortunately, today, the Hellenes
(Greeks), even though that they are members of NATO and European Union (EU),
remain ever-vigilant against the expansionistic plans of their neighbors and
especially now, since the fall of the communism, Skopjeans have begun to make
claims against northern Greece.
They have spread far and wide propaganda that Macedonians are not Greeks and
they style themselves as the true Macedonians (sic). They have spread lies and
disinformation everywhere in all the “controlled” nations,[19]
the United States, Canada, Australia,
and Europe. But the question remains, how can
they be Macedonians without being Greeks? And, how dared some nations to turn a
blind eye to the historic and scientific truth and recognize this pseudo-state
as “Macedonia”?



II. A Few Linguistic Evidences


            The Ancient Macedonians, speaking a
Greek dialect, had remained, for a few centuries, outside the mainstream of
Hellenic culture because, unlike their kinsmen, they never ventured southward
and thus did not come into early contact with the Creto-insular population. By
the 8th Century B.C., however, the Macedonians were drawn even more
closely to the rest of the Greek World. Orestis (the region known today as
Kastoria) is mentioned as early as the 7th Century as the birthplace
of the Macedonian Dynasty of the Argeads (
jArgeiavdwn) and Temenids
Timenivdwn). Argos is, of course, the name of a
city in Macedonia,
which to this day is called Argos Orestikon (
[Argo~ jOrestikovn) to
distinguish it from its rather better known Peloponnesian namesake. The fact
that the same name, Argos, appears in antiquity
in places as far apart as Macedonia
and the Peloponnesos is one more piece of evidence showing how much these
ancient Greek tribes (South and North) had in common. It declares the common
ethnological and linguistic origin of Macedonian and the other Greek tribes of
the south.


            The name Macedonia (Makedoniva) comes from the
ancient Greek word (
ma`ko~ = makos),[20]
which is a Doric form of the word (
mh`ko~ = mikos) meaning length and (Makednov~ =
Makednos) means long/tall.[21]
The ancient people, who came to Macedonia
during the prehistoric era, were noted for their height. They really were (
Makednoiv =
Makedni) tall people.


            Even since the “tall ones” the “Makednoiv”, as
they were called in Homeric Greek, settled down in the Balkan
Peninsula, it was named after them,
<<Makedoniva>>. Macedonia has rarely been free from controversy. Especially now when
the Orthodox Balkans are again the powder-keg that they used to be (other
regions compete for this honor, too);[22]  a festering debate continues to cloud
relations between three neighboring countries, namely Skopje
(Vardarska Banovina), Greece,
and to a lesser degree Bulgaria.[23]


            It will be afflictive for humanity
if the historical record is ignored or forgotten or if the Geographical
Discipline is rejected because they prove beyond doubt that the holy land of Macedonia is Greek, just as the southern area of
Skopje is
Greek. It is extraordinary that Greeks have to prove that the great Macedonia
philosopher Aristotle[24]
was Greek and that his name is made up from the Greek words
a[risto~ (best)
tevlo~ (end), that the Macedonian Alexander the Great is Greek and his
name is produced from the Greek words
ajlevxw (repel) and a[ndra~ (man),[25]
and that the Macedonian King Philip, father of Alexander, is Greek and his name
is composed from the Greek words
fivlo~ (friend) and i{ppo~ (horse), etc.


            The capital city of the state of Macedonia was Aijgaiv (Aijgev~)
(=Aegai) or
Bergivna (=Vergina), which means water and coastal land, from where comes
the word
Aijgai`on Pevlago~ (=Aegean Sea).[26]
The word
aijgialov~ (aegialos) means coast, seashore and aige~ (aeges) are the
waves of the sea. According to
(Theophrastos), a student of Aristotle, Aijgaiv (Aegae) is
derived from the word
(Aegis), which means unceasing storm. Further, the word
 [Edessa (=Edessa) comes
from the amalgamation of the Pelasgian
EDEOS (EDEOS= qrovno~, throne)
with the Pelasgian ending
(ESSA), that is to say, the one who has the
(Macedonian) throne (state).[27]  


            The name ALEX-ANDROS (ALEX-ANDROS) consists
of the words,
ajlevxw[28] + ajnhvr (alexo+anir), which means the man, who repel the enemies or is
composed of
+ ajnhvr
(alego+anir), which indicates the man, who brings
together people of the same race. The word
ALES (ALES) ascribes the
meaning of assembly of men of the same race, i.e., Greeks. (
A = sugkevntrwsi~,
L = oJmoeidei`~-oJmovfulloi, of the same kind-of the same race; E = diacronikovthta,
S = a[nqrwpoi, persons). Whereas the second word ANDROS (ANDROS)
explains by whom all these people are concentrated, that means by a man, who
has indeed high spirituality, power, vision, energy, and fighting.[30]


            Needless to say that the greatest
civilizer of the world was the Greek Alexander the Great from Macedonia (
jAlevxandro~ Filivppou Makedwvn, Alexandros Philippou Makedon, 22 July 356 B.C.-13 June 323 B.C.),
who was the greatest among Greeks and a precursor of Jesus Christ.[31]
John G. Varnakos[32]
by using Pythagorean arithmology[33]
proves the existence and the journey of Alexander the Great. Hellas,
as the cradle of the world civilization, was able to offer to humanity
Alexander, one of the greatest personalities of Ancient Greece. With him, the
richness of the ancient Greek language, wisdom, and paideia was transferred to
the entire known at the time world and changed the course of humanity.
Historians and archaeologists study, for thousands of years, this grandiose
march, so to be able to analyze the life and the work of this great Hellen.
Alexander himself had said (in his own Greek language) that,
<<…Eujgnwmonw` toi`~ qeoi`~ o{ti ejgennhvqhn  {Ellhn …>> (=I am grateful to
gods that I was borne Greek). 


            It is not surprising, then, that
ancient material and sources have indicated significant evidence that the
Macedonian language has always been a Greek language. Examples noted by
linguistic scholars include the names of Macedonians, places in Macedonia,
months and feasts. The origin of all these words and names is Greek. The same
is true for the phonetic structure, conjugation, and termination of words. Such
was the extent of these common grounds that the ancient Macedonians could
communicate with Southern Greeks comfortably. In addition, contemporary sources
at the time of Alexander the Great refer to only one language in use, Greek! So
it was that the names of cities built in Asia and Egypt by Alexander the Great and
his heirs were Greek.


            Improbable, comic (actually,
tragicomic because they try to create an independent state from nowhere),
theatrical, political (propagandistic with the help from the enemies of Hellas) is the performance of the Slavic Skopjeans to
present themselves as descendants of the Greatest of Greeks,
tou`  jAlexavndrou Filivppou Makedwvn (Alecandros Philippou Makedon = of Alexander Philip Macedon). In the
Greek prehistory and history did not exist forgeries and fictions, as it
happens with the contemporary pseudo-historians, who are financed by the grants
the dark powers. For this reason, there was objectivity and truth in ancient times. Arrian[34] was saying, << jAll j aujtovn ge  jAlevxandron
oujk aijscuvnomai qaumavzwn
>>. (= “But him Alexander, I am not ashamed to admire.”)


            The civilizing journey of the Greek
Alexander is also registered by his Greeks close coworkers:[35]
 JO Kallisqevnh~ oJ  jOluvnqio~ (= Kallisthenis
the Olynthian) a student and nephew of Aristotle, who followed Alexander as a
historian of his court. (2)
 JO Cavrh~ oJ Mutilhnai`o~ (= Charis the Mytilenean), who wrote ten (10) books with the title,
“Histories about Alexander”, with facts from the private life of the King and
on what was going on in his court. (3)
 JO  jOnhsivkrito~ ajpov thvn  jAstupavlaia (=
Onesicritus from Astypalaea), who was Alexander’s helmsman of his ship, when
Alexander was sailing the Indus
River. (4)   
JO  jAristovboulo~ ajpov thvn
(Aristobulus from Cassandrea) was an
engineer in Alexander’s army.[36]
 JO Ptolemai`o~ oJ uiJov~ tou` Lavgou (Ptolemy I, son of Lagos,
372-282 B.C.) was a Macedonian Greek general (Alexander’s favorite general) and
a friend of Alexander from his early childhood. He was with Alexander from his
first campaigns until the end. After Alexander’s death, he became the King of
Egypt (founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty). And (6)
oJ ajrcinauvarco~ Nevarco~ (first
navarch Nearchus), who led the navy of Alexander from India to Susa (Persia) and wrote the
<<Paravplou th`~  jIndikh`~>> (= the Coastal
Sail of India).
Alexander’s expedition in India
is preserved in Arrian’s account, the Indica.


In addition, there were some other contemporary of Alexander
historians, who gave valuable

information to us, <
as (7) the tyle="">sophist  jAnaximevnh~ oJ Lamyakhnov~ (= Anaxime-nes of em> Lampsakos), (8) the e="">orator  JHghsiva~ oJ Mavgnh~ (=
Hegesias of Magnesia) founder of
 jAsianismou` (= Asianism), (9) the historian Marsuva~ oJ Pellai`o~ em>(=
Marsyas of Pella) son of Periander (
Periavndrou) and brother of  <
em style="">jAntigovnou tou` Monofqavlmou
(Antigonus Monophthalmus), and many others. All these historians and
contributors of Alexander’s campaign prove the Greekness of Alexander the
Great. Further, more information are coming from the
<<Basivleioi jEfhmerivde~>><
span lang="EN-US"> (= The Royal Journals),
constituted the official journal of the Court; responsible for their editing
oJ Eujmevnh~ oJ
(= Eumenis the Kardianos) and oJ Diovdoto~ oJ  jEruqrai`o~ style="">(= Diodotus
the Erythraeos).  


            The Hellenic virtues of Alexander
can be seen with the
(lexarithmous= word-numbers) of his name. The simple
collocation of letter-numbers gives for Alexander the number eight (8):


L    E     X   
A     N    D   
R   O    S

A  L  E  X
 A  N  D  R  O

1-  30  – 5 – 60 – 1 – 50 – 4 -100 -70 -200 = 521 = 8
= 23


Nicomachus (Nikovmaco~)[37]
informs us that the number eight (8) was named from the Pythagoreans as earthly
harmony (
). Then,  jAlevxandro~ (Alexandros) = 8 represents an enormous power (duvnami~), which
contains and embodies the elements of justice (
dikaiosuvnh~) and harmony (aJrmoniva~).
With this, it is imprinted the ideal way of exercising authority and the
unfolding of human (anthropic) societies.[38]  


            Also,  jAlevxandro~
(Alexandros Filippou) = 9 means Ocean ( jWkeanov~)-Horizon
JOrivzon). Thus, it is interpreted that the events rotate around his face;
all developments are found in his activity and effectiveness. This nine (9)
means also, Amity (

), Prometheus (Promhqeuv~), Ekaergos ( jEkavergo~),
Hephaestos (
{Hfaisto~), Terpsichore (Teryicovrh), Telesphoros-Effective (Telesfovro~), Perfect (Tevleio~), and
Harmony (


            Further,  jAlevxandro~
(Alexandros Makedon) = 10. This word-number (lexavriqmo~) has
the following interpretation: It is imprinted with a shocking way the march of
Alexander into the entire world of his time.[40]  Furthermore, 
Filivppou Makedwvn
(Alexandros Filippou Makedon) = [521
or 8] + [1180 or 10] + [920 or 2] = 2 or 20. This emergent formation has as
follows: The one and exceptional being, whose Alexander’s personality
represented; who undertook with courageous strength and limitless endurance to
construct a new heaven (a system of command and collaboration) for the cosmos
of his era, which will continue to exist eternally.[41]
Skopjeans owe, just as all people, to comprehend that the Hellenic History and
Alexander walk hand by hand. Consequently, Aristotle-teacher (and what a
teacher!) and Alexander-student (and what a student!) walk similarly hand by
hand. But, Pythagoreans and Aristotle (uniform body of knowledge) walk
similarly hand by hand.[42]
During the entire time of Alexander’s expedition, Aristotle was the president
of the Pythagorean Academy in Athens,
which was financed by Alexander. After the death of Alexander, Aristotle
abandoned the Academy in Athens to go to Chalcis in Euboea, where
he stayed until the end of his life.


            The Greek eminent general, Perdiccas
Perdivkka~), as a co-warrior of Alexander, was distinguished initially at the
expedition against some Thracian tribes and towards Illyria, who were violated
repeatedly the borders of Macedonia.[43]
Then, during the north march of Alexander towards the Danube
(the ancient Istros,
Perdiccas was distinguished in particular, when they were passing the river,
and he showed bravery and self-sacrifice.[45]
Of course, the Hellenic expedition of Alexander the Great to the depth of the Central Asia, besides the greatest military achievement,
it constituted an enormous political and cultural event of eminent importance
for Hellenism. Slavs and Paeones did not appear anywhere during the expedition
of Alexander. The abolition of the dynasty of Achaemenids (
and the advance of the Greek army until India resulted to the creation of a
universal Hellenic nation with long-lasting consequences.


            Alexander the Great was an offspring
of Hellas and a nursling of Macedonia.
He said that, “To my father I owe my being and to my teacher (Aristotle) the
well being”.[47] From
his mother Olympias, the origin of Alexander goes back to the proud
Aijakivde~ (Aeacides)
from Epirus and from his father Philip, his root reached to the renowned race
jArgeadw`n (Argeads);[48]
that is to say, a crossing of blood of two heroes descendants of Zeus, of
Achilles and of Hercules, who were representing the beauty, the bravery, and
the moderation of the entire Hellenism.[49]


            Ioannis Varnakos, by using geometric
forms and the geodesy of the Hellenic region, bear witness of the Greekness of
Alexander and of Macedonia.
The geometrical-geodesy units of Hellenic dominion of the Ancient Greece (the
unique on the earth) speak by themselves for the splendid star of the Pantheon
of the Hellenic History. They are:











These pyradic shapes
Puradikav) fortify the uniform of the history of the Hellenic area and point
out these regions, where mainly the civilization of Greeks has been built.[50]


            In the palace of  Aijgw`n (Bergivna~) (Aegae or
Vergina) was found on the floor an inscription saying,
<< JHraklh`/ Patrwv/w/>> (= to Hercules Paternal), which means to Hercules who was the
progenitor of the Royal family of the Hellenic Macedonians.[51]
All the linguistic evidences declare that Macedonia and Macedonians were,
are, and will be Greeks (Hellenes). The pseudo-historians of our days must
learn first, history and if they can, it will be good for them and the world,
to learn the Greek language.  


            During the Turkish occupation, the
Greeks’ presence was continuous in Macedonia and Greeks also were
living in today’s Skopjean republic. Events reveal that Greek schools of Macedonia were established and were maintained
not from a distant Greek
Center, but from within
local Greek Communities. In these communities, the donators and the legators constitute
one piece of the evidences of the presence of a vital, and conscience Greek population
in all cities of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Greeks of the diaspora were speaking and writing Greek. Also, in
the middle of Slavic populations, in northern Serbia,
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia,
Bohemia, and Hungary, Macedonians were speaking
Greek. They were Greeks.


            Until the Second World War, there
was no such thing as a “Macedonian” language. The language spoken by the
Slav-speaking inhabitants of northern Macedonia
(i.e., regions of southern ex-Yugoslavia and south-western Bulgaria) was
always considered to be a Bulgarian dialect. In regions bordering Albania, or in
the northern border zone of Greece, it took the form of a local idiom replete
with Albanian and Greek words, respectively. It was just a spoken idiom with a
poor vocabulary and no grammar or syntax. Indeed, the influence of Greek was
such that Slavophone inhabitants in pre-war Greek Macedonia could hardly
understand natives of Sofia or Skopje.


            After the war, however, when the
“Socialist Republic of Macedonia” was set up in Yugoslavia, the new regime there,
made an all out effort, to raise the local dialect to the rank of a respectable
language. Swarms of linguists, philologists, and other such “scholars”
converged in Skopje
and set out first, to break off any lingering bonds between the language of
Yugoslav Macedonians and Bulgarians. Their next step was to create a separate
written language founded on the dialect spoken in central “Yugoslav Macedonia”
as well as on massive borrowing from Serbian, Russian, and other Slav
languages. The language, thus, constructed was christened “literary Macedonian”
and no sooner was it launched than it was recognized in the Yugoslav
constitution as one of the three official languages of the Federation.[52]


            Literary “Macedonian”, however, has
not managed to shake off, convincingly the Bulgarian connection. What it has
done, is to become even less comprehensible to the few aging Slavophones still
living in the border areas and still able to speak their rather poor local
Greco-Slav idiom. The language of Skopje is a Bulgarian dialect and the poor
Skopjeans are living to an illusory “democracy” that Albanians soon will start
undermine it to create the “Muslim Great Albania” inside the Christian Europe
with the help of Turkey and Saudi Arabia.



Some Concluding Remarks


            According to the ancient historians,
the usual call (name) of Alexander during his epoch was:
<< jAlevxandro~ Filivppou
(Alexander of Philip),
 jAlevxandro~ Makedwvn
(Alexander Macedon) and as

 jAlevxandro~ Filivppou Makedwvn
(Alexander Philip Macedon)>>. Alexander the Great was Greek, as it
is seen from his name, his language, and his declaration. His role and the role
of Hellenism is historic and humanistic –and as time passes the vast majority
of people will realize it- because they were able many times in the past to
re-orientate humanity. Hellenism is a global divine (
pneumatikhv) movement of
ancient moral philosophy combined with the revealed truth of Christianity, the
Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage exists in the adoption of the moderation, the
spiritual, the eternal, and the truthful, and at the same time in the rejection
of the exaggeration, the materialistic, the transitory, and above all the bold
lie, as it is happening with Skopjeans. How many today understand this unique
culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture (
JEllhnorqovdoxo~ Paideiva)? The race, which possesses this culture, had the unique ability to
reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless degeneration of the
human civilization left behind in every historic period. The universal ideas of
Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating everlasting values.
The principles of Hellenism that have changed the intellectual trends of
humanity throughout history, have been born to this small geographical region,
which for more than three thousand years obstinately resists the undermining
efforts of the “civilized” world and the hordes of barbarians. One
representative of this race is Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Greek
commander of the army who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism.
Theodore Birt said, “Alexander was the beginning and Christ was the end”.


            The pioneer researcher of Macedonian
archaeology, Margaritis Dimitsas, in his astonishing
work, << JH Makedoniva ejn Livqoi~ Fqeggomevnoi~ kai; Mnhmeivoi~ Swzomev-noi~>> (= Macedonia
on Stones which Speak and on Saved Monuments), characterized with wisdom the
Macedonian monuments as
<<fqeggomevnou~ livqou~>> namely,
“the speaking stones”.[53]
Unfortunately, the future of mankind is uncertain because the global system, today,
promote the lie, the deception, the delusion, the corruption, and the forgery
of everything, as it is in the current situation, the falsification of history,
of the name, of the symbols, and the persons of the Hellenic history, like the
one of Alexander the Great. Greece and Greeks cannot abandon their
civilization, their history, and their ancestors, and certainly, the one and
unique representative of them, Alexander the Great because Europe, the U.S.,
and other suspicious powers have economic and military interests to deceive and
to promote a wrong nationalism for Skopjeans, so they do not feel inferior as
Slavs, but to sleep and to dream that they are descendants of the Greek
demigod, Alexander the Great.


            The Greek name “Macedonia” (Makedoniva) was
given by Tito and was used for this Yugoslav democracy only since 1945,[54]
but it was identified for many centuries with Greek civilization and Greek
history. Their neighboring Greeks are reasonably disturbed when the name of Macedonia
becomes subject to abuse by a region, which ethnologically is not Greek, but
Albanian, Vlach, Serb, Gypsy, Turkish, Slavic, and Bulgarian. It is
characteristic and suspicious that the two first countries recognized this new
government was Bulgaria and Turkey.
The stability of the region would be better served by the denial of recognition
or by saying to these people and the entire world the historic truth. Finally,
if Skopjeans feel that they are Macedonians, let them open their borders and
unite with Greece,
then, they will become Greeks and at the end they will be Macedonians. Ancient
Greek Macedonians can be interpreted better only by these people, who know the
Greek language, the contemporary Greeks and not the Skopjeans and the entrapped


            It is clear, when objectively
examined, as it was done here with some linguistic evidence, that the
“Macedonian Question” for Greece
cannot exist and the “Macedonian Problem” is a non-issue.[55]
The legal status quo of the northern borders of Greece are determined with
international treaties, like the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which ended the
second Balkan War, and the Peace Treaties at the end of the two World Wars, of
Neuilly (1919)[56]
and of Paris (1947). Also, Macedonia
is a geographic concept and not an ethnic notion. In fact, only one country can
identify herself, for historical reasons, with Macedonia. That country is Greece, which has been inextricably linked with Macedonia for
more than 4,000 years. In the texts of the Ancient Greeks there is knowledge,
historic truth, and linguistic evidence, which constitute the foundation of all
the current sciences. We are grateful to all these Ancient Greeks, the
forefathers of today Hellenes, but we must be lenient with the other people and
nations, who only were able to copy the Ancient Greeks and because they ignore
the Greek language, they did a very bad copy.   


            Erroneously, Greek politicians have
no territorial claims against neighboring states even though a vast area of Greece is still
under occupation. They regard all borders, which have been consecrated with
international treaties and which have been legalized (ratified) with the Final
Act of Helsinsky as inviolable. Considering Greek Macedonia, the ethnological
homogeneity of the area renders her un-attackable from the various claims that
have appeared in the past with the pretext of minority demands.[57]
It is natural, for someone who does not know the historic truth to consider the
existence of this inexistent problem, but in the long-run it can include risks,
which are possible to involve, the sensitive area of Balkans, into new
tribulations. For this reason, Greece
looks positively to every effort, which tends to reduce this formerly intense
dispute peacefully and fairly according to historical evidences; and hopefully
the impartial international community will assist her.


            For these reasons, Greece has opposed the recognition of an
independent nation on her northern border, which will bear the Hellenic name “Macedonia”.
Of course, this does not mean that Greece is against the Skopjeans
right to establish their own independent nation and have their own language,
history, and traditions. All people have the right to self-determination of
their future; of course, this choice is confined within the limits of
international law (or legality). Greece,
however cannot accept the use of the Macedonian name or any compound name with
the word Macedonia in it
(i.e., “Upper Macedonia”) or Hellenic symbols
or history by any nation, which is in all other respects Slavic. The terms
“Macedonia-Macedonians” and names of similar relevance belong to Hellas and
Hellenes (Greece
and Greeks). They constitute Greece’s
national and cultural inheritance and as such have been recorded in history for
many centuries before the appearance of Slavs in the area of Balkans and
especially in the area of Macedonia.


            The fact, that the ancient
Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to dispute any
longer. The new archeological treasures (found in Aegae, Vergina)[58]
in connection with linguistic analyses and evidences and the findings of a
great number of new inscriptions[59]
–all Greek– with rich samples of Greek names, prove that there is no
discontinuation of either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the
Macedonians with the rest of the Greeks.[60]
Also, the spreading of the Greek language and the Greek civilization and
culture to the entire known world from the Macedonians of the Alexander the
Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event. This event
is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to
light either at the large excavations of Pella, Vergina, Dion, and Sindos, or
in dozens less known, like in areas of Voion, Aeani, Kozani, Kastoria, Florina,
Edessa, Aridaea, Kilkis, Kavala, and of course, Thessaloniki and Chalkidiki
(Petralona), and others (in Asia and Egypt).


            Finally, Greece,
every Greek, and every one who has an objective knowledge of history are
opposed to Skopje’s name as “Macedonia”. Skopje’s peoples are not
properly a distinct nation, but belong, by language and culture, to one or
another, or perhaps all three of the neighboring Slavic states (they have
nothing in common with Hellenic Macedonians). Recognition of Skopje
as “Macedonia”
is historically, scientifically, and morally wrong. Skopjean deception has
created an enormous propaganda, which is published in the New York Times, the
Wall Street Journal, and other papers around the world and it is
unconscionable, constant, and provocative.[61]
If Skopje were to give up the policy of misappropriating the term
“Macedonians”; if it were to adopt, for instance, another term, (such as
“Vardarians” or “Dardanians” or “Sclavinians”),[62]
in order to designate the Slav inhabitants of “South Yugoslavia” and possibly
certain émigré groups who share her views; the Greeks, naturally, would have no
quarrel with this state of affairs.
There is necessary that Greeks will undertake a big
campaign all over the world to inform the international community and
especially the Greek Prime Minister, George
as well as theGreek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the mayor of Thessaloniki,
Boutaris,who act against Greece’s interest and rights.[63]
Undoubtedly, Macedonians were always Greeks and Skopjeans were Slavs (= Makedovne~ajeiv  {Ellhne~, Skopianoiv ajeiv Slavboi).





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[1] See, Jones (1997).

[2] See, Kebric (1997) and Kitto (1987).

[3] See, Marchant and Todd (1997)

[4] See, Pedley (1998).

[5] But, at the same time, Hellas
faces a lot of opposition from heretics (heterodoxs) and other religions
(allodoxs) because of her traditional Orthodoxy and her Hellenic paideia.

[6] With their wisdom, like: “Moderation in all things” (Pa`n mevtron a[riston) or “Know yourself” (Gnw`qi saujtovn), Greeks set the foundations
and advanced the world.

[7] See, Davies (1998, p. 95).

[8] See, Kallianiotis (2010j).

[9] Hellenes had the same blood, the same language, the same religion, and
the same behavior (morals) (
oJmovglwsson, oJmovqrhskon kai; oJmovtropon
), according
to Herodotus (
JHrovdoto~), (484-410 B.C.). <<Tov  JEllhnikovn ejovn o{maimovn te kai;
oJmovglwsson kai; qew`n iJdruvmatav te koinav kai; qusiva~, h[qeav

te oJmovtropa… >> ( JIstoriw`n
 jOgdovh – H v 144
).  See, Kallianiotis (2007,
p. 179).

[10] See, Roberts (1997, p. 43).

[11] Aijgaiv (=Aegae) according to the ancient tradition (Homer’s Iliad 13, 21
and Homer’s Odyssey 5, 381) means water.

[12] See, Roberts (1997, p. 47).

[13] See, Homer’s Iliad.

[14]  JO  {Ellhn  {Omhro~ uJph`rxen oJ ajgaphmevno~ suggrafeuv~
tou`  {Ellhno~  jAlexavndrou, oJ oJpoi`o~

katei`ce thvn paideivan tou`  {Ellhno~  jAristotevlou~.

[15] The European civilization was a Hellenic-Orthodox civilization up
to the 9th century A.D., before the barbaric invasions from West and
North. See, Sakarellos (2005).

[16] See, Jones (1997), Kebric (1997), Vasiliev (1980), and
Paparrigopoulos (2003).

[17] See, Blum, Cameron, and Barnes (1970, p. 4).

[18] Prw`to~ oJ
Puqagovra~ crhsimopoivhse thvn levxh
<<kovsmo~>>, giav nav uJpodhlwvnh thvn ojrganwmevnh

tavxh tw`n ajnqrwvpwn kai; tou` suvmpanto~. See, Varnakos (1997, p. 64).

[19] Mahathir Mohamad, former leader of Malaysia, said that “Jewish groups
secretly control the World’s great powers”. See, The Wall Street Journal, October 9-10, 2010, p. A1 and A11.

[20] The word ma`ko~ is used even today as mavkro~ (=length) in Greek language, which
proves that Ancient Macedonians and today’s Macedonians are the same people,
Greeks (Hellenes) with the same language. 

[21] This different in height can be seen even today. North Greeks
(Macedonians) are taller than South Greeks (Peloponnesians).

[22] The dark powers, as moral perpetrators, try with all their means to
divide all states, so they can conquer the Orthodox nations of Eastern Europe
and Balkans from Russia to Hellas. Of course, they are not going to succeed to this
infernal plan.

[23] Lately, with the creation of an independent Kosovo (actually, an
Albanian protectorate of the West) and the other plans of the enemies of
Orthodoxy, the Muslim Great Albania, will cause serious problems to this area
in the near future. Of course, the moral perpetrators (
hjqikoiv aujtourgoiv) are
not these neighbors, but the true enemies of the Orthodox.

[24] Aristotle (Greek: ριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 B.C. – 322 B.C.) was a
Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His
writings cover many subjects, including physics (the relativity theory had been
developed by Aristotle in the 4th century B.C. and in the 20th
century A.D. was presented with a mathematic formula by Einstein, the student
of the Greek mathematician, Constantine Caratheodoris,
, who knew Aristotle’s relativity theory), metaphysics, poetry, theater,
music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology.
Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato’s teacher), Aristotle is one of the
most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s writings
were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy,
encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and
metaphysics. All aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy continue to be the object of
active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and
dialogues (Cicero
described his literary style as “a river of gold”), it is thought
that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the
original works have survived. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave
lessons not only to Alexander (
jAlevxandro~, 356-323 B.C.), but also to two
other future kings: Ptolemy (
Ptolemai`o~, 367-283 B.C.) and Cassander (Kavssandro~, 350-297 B.C.). In his Politics,
Aristotle states that only one thing could justify monarchy, and that was if
the virtue of the king and his family were greater than the virtue of the rest
of the citizens put together. Tactfully, he included the young prince,
Alexander, and his father in that category. Aristotle encouraged Alexander
toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly
ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be “a leader to
the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after
friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants”.

[25]  jAlevxandro~ shmaivnei aujtov~ pouv
sugkentrwvnei a[ndre~ polemistev~ guvrw tou.
Varnakos (1997).

[26] The correct spelling is “Aegaeon

[27] See, Varnakos (1997, p. 48).

[28] ajlevxw = ajpomakruvnw,
ajpokrouvw, uJperaspivzw, bohqw`.

[29] ajlevgw = sunariqmw`,
sugkatalevgw, frontivzw, merimnw`.

[30] See, Varnakos (1997, pp. 49-50).

[31] We cannot deceive human beings because we have the economic power,
the “intellectual” one or the military. We have the obligation to say only the
Truth that Jesus Christ taught us.

[32] See, Varnakos (1997).

[34]  Leuvkio~
Flavbio~  jArrianov~
(Lucius Flavius Arrianus ‘Xenophon’ 86 – 160 A.D.), known in
English as Arrian and Arrian of Nicomedia, was a Roman (ethnic
Greek) historian, public servant, a military commander and a philosopher of the
2nd-century A.D. Roman period. As with other authors of the Second Sophistic,
Arrian wrote primarily in Attic [Indica (
is in Herodotus’ Ionic dialect, his philosophical works in Koine Greek].
Nothing is written in “Macedonian” language because such language did not
exist. His works preserve the philosophy of Epictetus, and include the (
jAlexavndrou  jAnavbasi~) Anabasis of Alexander, an important account of
Alexander the Great; as well as the Indica, a description of Nearchus’ voyage
from India
following Alexander’s conquest, and other short works. Arrian is generally
considered one of the best sources on the campaigns of Alexander, as well as
one of the founders of a primarily military-based focus on history

[35] See, Varnakos (1997, pp. 23-24).

[36]  jAristovboulo~ (Aristobulus)
was also a Greek historian, who in his youth accompanied Alexander the Great on
his campaigns. In his 85th year, when he was living at Cassandra in Thrace, he
wrote a work upon Alexander, in which he recorded his careful observations on
geography, ethnography, and natural science. The book is highly praised for its
trustworthiness, but only fragments of it have reached us. He and Ptolemy were
the chief authorities for Arrian’s Anabasis.

[38] See, Varnakos (1997, p. 54).

[39] See, Varnakos (1997, p. 59).

[40] See, Varnakos (1997, p. 62).

[41] See, Varnakos (1997, p. 63).

[42] << JH Mustikistikhv kai; Qeologikhv
ajriqmhtikhv tw`n Puqagoreivwn ajntiprswpeuvei e{na oijkodov-

mhma ajperavntou pneumatikou` u{you~, miva
filosofikhv pragmavtwsh th`~ ojrfikh`~ pivstew~, giav thvn

ajqanasiva th`~ yuch`~ tou` ajnqrwpivnou ajllav
kai; tou` sumpantikou` mikrokovsmou, giav thvn pragmavtw-

sh tou`  kaq j eijkovna kai; oJmoivwsh e=”">  jEkeivnou.>> See, Varnakos (1997,
p. 64).

[43] See, Varnakos (1997, p. 105).

[45] See, Arrian, I. 6. 9-10.

[46] The Achaemenid Empire (550–330 B.C.), also
known as the Persian Empire, was the
successor state of the Median Empire, ruling over significant portions of what
would become Greater Iran. The Persian and the Median Empire taken together are
also known as the Medo-Persian Empire, which encompassed the combined
territories of several earlier empires. The Achaemenid Persian Empire was
invaded by Alexander the Great, after which it collapsed and disintegrated in
330 B.C. into what later became the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in
addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time.

[47] <<Eij~ tovn patevra mou ojfeivlw tov
zei`n, eij~ dev tovn davskalovn mou ( jAristotevlhn) tov eu zei`n …

( jAlevxandro~).

[48] Argead dynasty (Greek: ργεάδαι)
was the ancient Greek ruling house of Macedon from about 700 to 310 B.C. Their
tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins
to Argos, in southern Greece (hence the name Argeads).
Initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had
expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedon all Upper
Macedonian states. The family’s most celebrated members were Philip II of
Macedon and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership, the kingdom of Macedon
gradually gained predominance throughout Greece,
defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India.

[49] See also, Varnakos (1997, p. 154). The virtues for Hellenes are the
same today: strictness (
aujsthrovth~) towards themselves, leniency (ejpieivkeia) towards the
others, and moderation (
mevtron) for everything.

[50] See, Varnakos (1997, pp. 155-158).

[51] See, Andronikos (1984).

[52] Upon returning to the region, devastated
by the wars of 1990s, in Croatia
and Bosnia-Herzegovina, eight years later, Dr. Greenberg found the linguistic
situation radically different. Within the span of a decade, the Serbo-Croatian
unified language had disintegrated into four successor languages (Bosnian,
Croatian, Serbian, Montenegrin) on a path to becoming mutually unintelligible.
The history of the Balkan region is fraught with linguistic discord, but by any
previous standard of linguistic behavior, this event was unprecedented. See,

[53] See, Dimitsas (1988).

[54] In 1948, Cominform, the first official
forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the
Comintern, put into action a plan to take hostage to communist countries
children from Greece
during the Greek civil war. The aim was to re-educate these children as well as
blackmail the populace and the Greek government towards reaching a settlement
leading to a partition of Greece
and the subsequent creation of an internationalist “Macedonian”
Republic. This move has favoured by the Yugoslav dictator Josip Broz Tito and
had been a Comitern policy aimed at destroying the national states of the
Balkans through the creation of internationalist republics.

[55] Professor Stephen G. Miller of Berkley
University in the U.S. sent a letter to the Archaeology Magazine, where he proves that the region where Skopje is today was Paeonia and Skopjeans have no right to
call their nation “Macedonia”
and themselves “Macedonians”. See, Christianiki
Bibliographia, Issue 42, Year 38, January-March 2009, pp. 21-23. 

[56] The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, dealing
with Bulgaria for its role
as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on 27 November 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. The treaty required
Bulgaria to cede Westerrn Thrace to the Entente, (which ceded it to Greece at
the San Remo conference) thereby cutting off its direct outlet to the Greek
Aegean Sea and an area of 2563 km² on the western border to the Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The treaty also forced Bulgaria
to return Southern Dobruia, which had been
captured during the war and restored the border set by the Treaty of Bucharest
(1913). Bulgaria was also
required to reduce its army to 20,000 men, pay reparations of £100 million, and
recognize the existence of the Kingdom
of Serbs, Croats and
Slovenes. The signing ceremony was held in Neuilly’s town hall (hôtel de ville).

[57] It is absolutely wrong, minorities to have more rights than the
majority. This is the deception of the dark powers that they impose on the
entire world; with the anti-humane “human rights and minority issues”, they
want to control and destroy the sovereignty of the independent nations; their
“big plan”!..

[58] See, Andronikos (1984).

[59] See, Kallianiotis (2010i).

[60] There is a series of articles by the author examining the
Macedonian question from different perspectives. See, Kallianiotis (2010b, g,
h, I, k, and m).

[61] The question is, here, why are these papers and the majority of the
other news media that determine public opinion so biased? How can we trust
their subjective news and their prejudice information? Of course, in academics,
we have to search only for the truth and nothing else.

[62] These names have been used in the past for the inhabitants of Skopje and as toponyms of
that region. The ancient Macedonians annexed Paeonia, but they never annexed
the region around Scupi (Skopje),
which belonged to Dardania. The historically correct name for Skopje, then, is Dardania. T
he name of the province
of Skopje (currently and wrongly,
FYROM) was “Vardarska or Vardar with capital
Skoplye”. See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59).

[63] No one has the right to negotiate the
Hellenic name “Macedonia” or
a compound name with the word “Macedonia”
in it, with the South-Slavs of Skopje.

Kiro Gligorov, the first President of the FYROM said, “We are Slavs who
came to this area in the sixth century (AD)… we are not descendants of the
ancient Macedonians. Serious historians are laughing with what has been
happening in my country. At the rate we are going we will say we are direct
descendants of Adam and Eve and Paradise will
be proven to be ‘Macedonian’ and thus ours”. He is absolutely right; MACEDONIA IS IN GREECE AND IS


(1810) αναγνώσεις

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