Short title: “The Macedonian Question”
this work is to provide some information and a scientifically true analysis on
the 8,000 years of Hellenic (Greek) history and to examine what this
information means to us and to the world as a whole. We will offer some
thoughts and unshaken historic events that may help to answer questions
concerning today’s conditions in south-eastern
the borders of the old ‘Christendom’ [currently, European Union (EU)]. It is
imperative that all scholars, politicians, decision makers, students, and
intellectual human beings have this information regarding the artificial state,
for all young people of this planet and they must know the plain truth in
simple words, away from any expediency, propaganda, and anti-scientific
delusion. This new state has unlawfully chosen the Greek name ‘
objecting their aggressiveness, their robbery, and their expansiveness. It is
historically wrong for them to use Greek names and symbols because they have
nothing in common with Greeks and their old name is Vardarska.
and culture have contributed a great deal to the European and the entire
western civilization that we find their seal everywhere, today. The democracy
of ancient Greece,
the accomplishments of her people,
the great ideas of her moral philosophers,
scientists and artists,
and finally, the dramatic events, which have unfolded in the glorious history
of the Greek nation because of its geographical position (connecting three
continents, Europe, Asia, and Africa) and its persistence in Christian truth
have always been a source of creative inspiration to all nations.
has truly improved mankind.
The ancient Hellenic civilization is
called the ‘classical’ one; later the word ‘classical’ became the source of
standards by which subsequent achievements can be measured.
‘There is a quality of excellence about Ancient Greece that brooks few
These peoples (Greeks) shared the same language (in an oral and written
literature) and they recognized a common heritage ‘Hellenes’, which they did
not share with other men. They belonged, as they felt, to ‘
The non-Greeks were ‘barbarians’. The achievement and importance of
comprehended all sides of life. ‘The Greeks did more for future civilization
than any of their predecessors.’ All Europe drew interest on the ‘capital’
the rest of the world has benefited from what Greeks offered to human
civilization. Alexander, the son of Philip, is one of those historical Greek
figures called ‘Great’. He was a passionate Hellene,
who believed Achilles
was his ancestor and carried with him on his campaigns a treasured copy of
Homer. He had been tutored by Aristotle. Alexander the Great had a staggering
record of success, even though that he died at the age of thirty-three years
old. The history of
the Western civilization (a Greek-Christian civilization).
Indisputable, Roman civilization was descended from the earliest Greek
Today, the European Union has changed drastically because of so many
influences by different sub-cultures. ‘European, or Western, civilization originated
from the fusion of German (barbarian) culture and Roman (Hellenic-Christian)
civilization during the Dark Ages from the 5th to the 10th
Of course, history repeats itself. There were even monetary and economic unions
in Ancient Greece, i.e., ‘the Common of Euboeans’, in 2nd century
where they issued a common currency, but they did not last for very long time
because of the oppression by Athens on their smaller member-states.
truth, divine justice, morality, and human respect are social necessities and
they require satisfaction. Each man enjoys existence according to his labor and
by himself he determines his future, his heritage, his nation and thus, affects
the world. Moral, ethical, and uncorrupted leadership is necessary to promote
patriotism and indigenous value system of a sovereign nation. Today, the
Hellenes (Greeks), even though that they are members of NATO and European Union
(EU), remain ever-vigilant against the expansionistic plans of their neighbors
and especially now, since the fall of the communism, Skopjeans have begun to
make claims against northern
They have spread far and wide propaganda that Macedonians are not Greeks and
they style themselves as the true Macedonians (sic). They have spread lies and
disinformation everywhere in the
But the question remains, how can they be Macedonians without being Greeks?
And, how dared some nations to turn a blind eye to the historic and scientific
truth and recognize this pseudo-state as ‘
II. A Concise Historical
evidence suggests that the Hellenic peninsula, the
inhabited as far back as 6000 B.C. During the Bronze Age (3000-2800 B.C.) these
inhabitants developed great cities, powerful navies and rich commerce,
resulting in two great civilizations, the Cycladic-Minoan (2500-1400 B.C.) that
we can see in Thera (Santorini), Knossos, and Phestos, and the Mycenaean
(1600-1100 B.C.) found in Peloponnesos. The Iliad, the Homeric epic, written in
approximately the 9th century B.C. illustrates this point through
the story of the famed Trojan expedition of the Mycenaeans and many other
famous Greek city-states led by the glorious king Agamemnon. Therefore, Greeks
migration to the Greek mainland about 1100 to 900 B.C., marked the beginning of
the Geometric Period (900-700 B.C.), which is the first period of recorded
history. During the Geometric Period the various tribes developed a common
uses up to now)
and religious system (the twelve Olympian gods),
and a uniform, though separate (city-state), form of government. Also, cultural
unity was further enhanced by the establishment of the Olympic Games in 776
B.C., an athletic event involving all of the Greek city-states in peaceful
and social unity. Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries were also constructed.
It should be noted that such unity included the cultural and commercial
development in the various colonies established by some of the city-states of
–spreading from the Black Sea and Asia Minor to
The Archaic Period
(800-550 B.C.) was a time, in which cultural integration progressed, though
tribes continued to divide politically into the two most powerful and rival
developed a semi-totalitarian society with a rigid military code based on
territorial conquest; while
a more loosely ordered and democratic society encouraged cooperation between
city-states and cultivation of the intellect and the fine arts. The two rivals
united for a time against a common foreign enemy, during the Persian wars,
which lasted from the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. to the battle of
Thermopylae (480 B.C.) to the naval battle of Salamis (479 B.C.), and the
battle of Plataea in 479 B.C.
Period (480-323 B.C.) marked the height of Greek cultural development. As the
leader of the Delian Confederacy, an alliance among the main Greek city-states,
flourished both economically and culturally. The wealth that they accumulated
from shipping, trading, and tribute from allies enabled the Athenians to
beautify their city with buildings, temples, theaters, and other magnificent
monuments. Under their leader Pericles, architects designed and constructed
buildings on the Acropolis, in the Agora and the surrounding area. In the
cultural sphere, philosophers, poets, historians, orators, and artists produced
some of the greatest works of art and literature. The playwrights Aeschylus,
Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes; the architects Ictinus and Callicrates;
the sculptors Pheidias, Scopas, and Praxiteles; the historian Herodotus,
Thucydides, and Xenophon; the orator Demosthenes; the philosophers Socrates,
Plato, and Aristotle all lived during this time. The Golden Age of
for military supremacy, a new, more powerful political force began to emerge in
In the four decades before the Hellenistic Period (323-146 B.C.), the
Macedonians under King Philip II (359 B.C.) forcefully united most of the Greek
city-states after defeating
and built a powerful Hellenic confederacy.
The illustrious Alexander the Great, the son of King Philip, schooled by
Aristotle, embarked on a historic expedition in 336 B.C. to conquer the vast
empire of the Persians (punish them for their past invasions of Greece). In
only eleven years he subdued this mighty foe and extended Hellenic influence
far into Africa and Asia, as far as
Alexander’s achievement marked the height of Hellenic military power.
Alexander’s death (323 B.C.), violent and frequent warfare among rival Greek
leagues tore apart the Empire. These conflicts rendered the Greek city-states
vulnerable to invasion. Finally, in 146 B.C., after fifty years of war, Roman
Although conquered, the Greek culture ‘subjugated’ the Roman culture. During
and after the Hellenistic Period, the classical Greek culture and Greek
language were dominant throughout the Orient.
In A.D. 50, Apostle Paul preached Christianity in
spoke to the Athenians about their ‘Unknown God’, for whom they already had a
temple, a common religion, the Hellenic Orthodoxy united them and made them an
inseparable group, the Greek-Orthodox people. Also, the use of the Greek language in
writing the Gospel and by the Eastern Church and her fathers gave a new
dimension to Hellenic culture and created the spiritual Medieval Hellenic
Christianization of the Roman Empire in 313 A.D. and the building of
Constantinople (325 A.D.) by Saint Constantine the Great launched
different historical and cultural path. The relocation of the capital from
Greek culture as a source of political power, and in the end the impact of
Hellenism proved irresistible. For the next eleven centuries, until the fall of
Constantinople on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, the Greek language and culture refashioned
by Orthodox Christianity, formed the sinews of the
During those eleven
centuries of the Byzantine Period (324-1453 A.D.), Byzantine and Greek history
were virtually inseparable. All Greeks had abandoned paganism and adopted
Christianity. This led to a magnificent flowering of Byzantine spiritual
culture, hymnography, architecture, literature, art, mostly in the form of
monastic frescoes and new religious iconography. The fall of Constantinople to
the Ottomans propelled
into her darkest period. Muslim Turks, who came from the Far East Asia and had
nothing in common with the Hellenic-Orthodox values, ruled
hand throughout much of the Middle Ages. Even though, Greeks kept an
inextinguishable awareness of their glorious past and ethnicity and their true
faith through the Orthodox Church, monasteries, and the memories passed on from
generation to generation.
the Turk conquerors occurred sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, but it
was not until the early nineteenth century that the modern Greek Sate evolved
(confined by her allies only on the European side of the Byzantine Empire),
commensurate with the decline of the Ottoman Empire. On 25 March 1821, Greeks
resumed their march through history again. A revolutionary army composed of
patriots from Peloponnesos, Sterea Ellada, and the
began to battle the Turkish armies. Although both sides scored success, the
conflict soon reached a stalemate. At the request of the Sultan, the Egyptians
under Ibrahim Pasha invaded
thus allowing for intervention by the three great European powers –
on the side of the Greek insurgents.
In the nineteenth
century and the early part of the twentieth, the Greek government tried to
extend her sovereignty over all adjacent lands inhabited by Greeks for many
centuries (since the 10th century B.C. and earlier, according to
was euphoric over the success of her armies in the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913
and in World War I. In spite of frustrating oppositions between King
Constantine and Prime Minister Venizelos, part of Greece had at least been
freed and was able to join the ‘entente’ and contribute to the allies’ final
victory, thus assuring the country’s good will, which future plans would
require. After all these war successes, came and the just ultimate objective of
the country, the ‘Great Idea’.
Venizelos lobbied hard at the 1918
conference, urgently presenting his views for an expanded
Medieval Greece had in the 15th century, but to include only the
large Greek Communities in Asia Minor (today occupied,
population in that part of
was subjected to harsh treatment by the Turks during World War I.
On 15 May 1919, the
Greek army landed on
objective to liberate this Greek land. The casualties on both sides were
enormous, after three years of hostilities. At the end, the enemy counter
attacked, and the Greeks fell back to where they started from, at Eski Shehir.
They were at a stalemate and low on military hardware and even in food
supplies, and their country was in difficult financial straits. A year later,
having gathered strength and aided by a supply of arms from
Pasha began his final offensive at the end of August 1922. Overwhelmed, the
Greeks retreated nearly 120 miles and tried to hold their lines. When that
failed, the retreat became a rout. The armed forces were evacuated from Chesme,
8-14 September 1922 and the massive Greek population tried to flee in panic
before the avenging Turks. It is estimated that as many as 30,000 civilians
lost their lives, and more than a million refugees fled to
Greek, Armenian, and European quarters were burned to the ground in a huge
fire. These refugees joined half a million or so Greeks who had fled earlier.
The large Greek presence in the area had lasted nearly three millennia, but it
was now substantially at the end. The ‘Great Idea’ was another one of the
victims, at least for one more century. Under the terms of the new treaty of
kept Eastern Thrace, Constantinople, Bosporus (today’s European Turkey) and the
strategic Greek populated islands of Imvros and Tenedos that had been given to
the Treaty of Serves.
confirmed. Most importantly, the treaty provided for the massive population
exchange that became necessary. Unfortunately, the Greek genocide by Turks
continued in Constantinople (1955) and in
In 1939, World War
II broke out in Europe and by 1940 most countries of
had surrendered and Hitler had the Continent of Europe in his grip. On 28
October 1940 Mussolini decided to take over
on his numbers and mechanized forces. He attacked
The Greeks with their Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas stood up and said ‘Ochi’
(OXI = No, you shall not pass) and these heroic forefathers of today’s Greeks
fought with a will, hurling back the aggressors. The Duce’s divisions were soon
pushed back into
and for six months were fighting to maintain a hold on the sea-cost,
desperately calling for help. When
entered the war against
with the most powerful army in
Greeks continued to fight both of these great empires although reason must have
told them that their position was hopeless. Beside their British comrades, they
continued to resist stubbornly on the
finest youth, and delayed for two months his attack against
troops ran into the dreadful Russian winter and the Russians imposed such
appalling losses that it contributed to the ultimate defeat of
The occupation, great famine, resistance and subsequent liberation of
and then came the ‘December Movement’, in which Greek communists fought their
brother Greeks. This civil war (kommounistosymmoritopolemos) ended in 29 August
1949 with the defeat of communists.
helped with the
era and made her one of the most important allies of the West.
III. Historic Perspectives of the Macedonian Problem
During communist rule in
usurped an ancient Greek name and rewrote history to suit their political
agenda. They are now promoting nationalist fervor that could unsettle
At issue is the uneasy
geographic rather than political zone that has not been a stable nation-state
since the death of Alexander the Great. In the latest cycle of shifting
borders, at the end of World War II, the region was carved up among
After the war, the new
the name of ‘Socialist Republic of Macedonia’ for the southern region of the
country. On this point there have been no real arguments as this was
essentially an internal administrative arrangement decided upon by a sovereign
country, but it proved to be wrong from
northern geographical and administrative districts of the country since the
first millennium B.C. Seventeen centuries before the appearance of Slavs in
With the emergence, after World War II, of communist
which proclaimed the existence of, and gave official recognition to a
‘Macedonian’ nation, the issue assumed an entirely new form. Before the War,
the Balkan communist parties had decided, under Comintern
instructions, to fight for the establishment of a unified
Communist Balkan Federation. However, the terms ‘Macedonians’ and ‘Thracians’,
widely used at the time, did not define specific ethnic groups, but covered
populations of mainly Bulgarian stock, who inhabited Macedonia and Thrace. A
leading part in this movement was played by the Communist Party of Bulgaria
under Dimitrov, while the communist parties of
were obliged to toe the Bulgarian line. In 1935, however, the Soviet need to
foment popular fronts in Europe in order to confront fascism, led to the
substitution of the unpopular goal of a unified and independent
by the slogan ‘Equality of treatment of the Slav-Macedonians within the
framework of the
In 1924, the Greek Communist Party (KKE) adopted the
Comintern policy for a unified
called for ‘equality of treatment’ for Slav-Macedonians within the borders of
the Nazi occupation it implemented its policy in the areas under its control by
establishing Slav-Macedonian schools, printing Slav-Macedonian publications and
endorsed the establishment of a Slav-Macedonian communist organization known by
its acronym as SNOF (Slav-Macedonian National Liberation Front). There is,
however, no evidence that during this period the KKE committed itself by
signing agreements, which envisaged the creation of a separate ‘
During World War II, in Yugoslav Macedonia, the
communist party of
had a very difficult time trying to win over the local communists who had
joined the communist party of
during 1941-1942 when most of
was under Bulgarian rule. By 1942, Tito’s partisans had taken control of the
situation. The solution adopted at a conference (1943), anticipated a federal
structure for post-war
figuring prominently as one of its six federated republics.
At the same time by official decree a ‘Macedonian nation’ was sanctioned,
emerging as one more, the latest, Slavic nationality in the area.
Further, during the time when
actively promoted the Macedonian issue (1945-1948),
confined its claims against
to the area of
Conference 1946-1947). In this policy,
had the support of both the Soviet Union and of
excommunication by Stalin in 1948,
for her to take a lead on the Macedonian issue as well. As already mentioned,
she lost no time in launching a campaign for the establishment of a unified
within the framework of a Balkan Federation. This implied that
indirectly laying a claim to Greek Macedonia as well. Thus, in the 1950’s, when
internationally promoting the view that the inhabitants of Yugoslav Macedonia
were really Bulgarians, she included in this category the few remaining
Slavophone citizens of
In the early 1960s, this policy was somewhat softened.
to a ‘Bulgarian speaking’ population living in border regions of Greek
Furthermore, in July 1947, Marshal Tito and the
Bulgarian communist leader Georgi Dimitrov met in Bled and agreed to work
towards the establishment of a federation. As a result the Bulgarian
authorities appointed teachers from
to instruct children in the ‘Macedonian’ language, encouraged the publication
of ‘Macedonian’ newspapers, accepted the emergence of a ‘Macedonian’ theater
and other such cultural activities (sic). It was obvious that Dimitrov went out
of his way to make substantial concessions on the Macedonian issue in return
for a firm promise by Tito that
would acquire the Bulgarian region to be ceded and that
Paris Peace Conference- the annexation by Bulgaria of Greek Western
During the Nazi occupation, the Yugoslav partisans had
tried hard to convince the Greek Communist leadership to accept the idea for
the cession of Greek Macedonia to a unified
Undeterred by their failure to achieve this, they continued to promote the
motion of a unified
throughout the period 1945-1948. The Bulgarian leader, Georgi Dimitrov agreed
to the scheme in Bled (1947) as already mentioned. It was also concluded that
in the not too distant future Greek Macedonia –as a whole or in part- would be
incorporated in the unified
In July 1948,
international communist movement. In the aftermath of his rift with the
sided immediately with Stalin. With regard to
Bulgarian policy was somewhat more gradual while Dimitrov was alive. To start
with, the teachers from
were sent packing and the ‘Macedonian’ schools and newspapers were closed. But
the concept of a unified
was not officially denounced. The difference was that now the ‘undivided
became a slogan firmly integrated in the wider plan for a Balkan Communist
Federation promoted by the Cominform in its anti-Yugoslav campaign. The
implication was that this unified
Greek Communist Party (KKE)-
would be controlled by
After their defeat of 1949, the leadership of the KKE in
exile continued to distinguish the Slav-Macedonians from the Greeks among the
ranks of the refuges who had fled to the Communist countries of Eastern Europe,
after all these atrocities that they committed for five years to
citizens. During the early years of its life in exile, the Party maintained
separate Slav-Macedonian schools and until 1974 the last page of the party’s
newspapers was printed in Slav-Macedonian. It was not until the great bulk of
Slav-Macedonians finally migrated to
party got rid of this rather unpleasant problem.
In the wake of the establishment of friendly
Greco-Yugoslav relations in 1951,
ceased to promote the unity of
as a political objective. The societies founded in
and their newspaper was closed down.
confined itself to merely demanding that the ‘Macedonians’ living in
granted minority rights. This demand, despite the departure of Slav-Macedonians
in 1949, was never forsaken by
during the halcyon days of the Tripartite Balkan Pact (1954) between
that after the turbulence of the decade 1940-1950, the three sections of
devoted themselves in the healing of their wounds and pursuing with peaceful
inquiries such as political, economic, and social evolution of the countries to
which they belonged.
It saw only in 1955, after Khrushchev’s visit to
between the Soviet Union and
Polemics ended and
followed suit, stopping the anti-Yugoslav propaganda over
in 1957, Tito condemned the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 and the
Bulgarians did not miss the opportunity to accuse Belgrade of trying to turn
the people of the Vardar valley into Serbs while maintaining that these ‘Macedonians’
were really Bulgarians. Such bitter polemics lasted up to 1961, during which
year a new rapprochement took place between
of the Communist Party of the
was being prepared. Khrushchev visited both
within the space of a few months. In the wake of these visits
question reverted almost to that of 1955 with one significant exception. The
inhabitants of the Pirin area were never re-baptized as ‘Macedonians’.
Since 1963, all references to Greek Macedonia and its
present inhabitants stopped altogether. In the bilateral negotiations of 1964,
which led to a complete normalization of relations between
of all issues arising out of the war, the Bulgarian side solemnly declared that
it had no claims on Greek territory. This policy remained unchanged during the
period of the dictatorship (1967-1974). After the restoration of parliamentary
democracy in Greece and on the occasion of meetings between Karamanlis and
Zivkov, the Bulgarian leader made it repeatedly clear in public, that his
country had no claims regarding Greece either on territory or with respect to
minorities. This is particularly the context within which relations with the
new Greek governments are being promoted.
vociferous campaign against the Bulgarians, accusing them of persecuting
minorities and of coveting Yugoslav territories. By the end of 1977
discreetly briefed foreign observers on her policies on the issue, always
insisting that she had no territorial claims against any of her neighbors. She
also intimated that such false accusations as were leveled against her by
tolerated indefinitely. This campaign reached its climax with President
Zivkov’s speech in Blagoevgrad (July 1978), in which the Bulgarian leader
publicly proposed to Tito that the two countries sign an agreement on the issue
pledging themselves not to raise any territorial claims against each other.
This proposal was rejected by
while the verbal onslaught against
‘Macedonian’ minority in Pirin continued unabated. In response to this
policy stiffened. Instead of merely rejecting
launched a campaign to inform international public opinion on the merits of
their case. Until Tito’s death (May 1980), the dispute continued in the open
with mutual recriminations on every conceivable level (press, politics,
science, history, diplomacy, etc.).
From 1975 on, a significant shift of emphasis became
evident. Not only public criticism against Greece for not recognizing a
‘Macedonian minority’ was on the increase, but once again, a press campaign
went as far as to allege ill treatment of ‘Macedonians’ by the Greek
authorities. Numerous books on the subject were published in
and in 1978 the Secretary of the Communist Party of Yugoslav Macedonia thought
it proper to openly criticize
to foreign journalists. Party documents of this period, including resolutions
of various congresses, especially in Yugoslav Macedonia, insisted on the need
for the rights of the ‘Macedonian minority’ to be guaranteed in
As a result of the strong Greek response by all major political parties, and in
view of the increasingly venomous dispute with
on this subject, the Yugoslav press reduced polemics concerning a nonexistent
Occasionally, however, new flare ups occur, which should be mainly attributed
to internal pressures within the Yugoslav federation.
Beside internal political considerations, the policy was
at promoting abroad the notion of a separate, distinct and well defined
‘Macedonian’ nation on the cultural level. It is for this reason that
on the participation of representatives from the ‘Socialist Republic of
Macedonia’ when cultural agreements were signed with any country. It was for
this reason that
and conferences or seminars on the ‘Macedonian’ language in foreign
universities, publishing a large number of books and trying to organize as many
by foreign leaders as it possibly could, so as to promote some kind of ‘de
facto’ recognition of Yugoslav Macedonians as a distinct nation.
Greek policy on the
territorial claims and makes no demands concerning the fate of any Greek
minority in the Macedonian regions of
But she does not accept the existence of a ‘Macedonian’ minority on her
territory either, particularly after the mass exodus of Slavs in the inter-war
years and in 1944-1949. As far as the Yugoslav views on the Macedonian question
are concerned, the Greeks cannot recognize the existence of a ‘Macedonian’
nation. They insist on this line for the simple reason, that ‘Macedonian’ is an
ancient Greek name, which in modern times has become a purely geographic term,
in constant use in
as well. Any attempt to appropriate it for defining exclusively a
newly-constructed Slav nationality is bound to meet with strong Greek
If another name had been adopted, there would be no difficulty in accepting the
emergence of one more Slav ethnic group in
The Macedonian Question in the 1980s was a political
indirectly involved. The fact that
tried to involve
raising the issue of a non-existent minority should be attributed mainly to
maneuvering and has nothing to do with realities in Greek Macedonia.
interpreted as an evenly balanced policy towards all occupiers of
‘Macedonians’, be they Bulgarians, Greeks or Albanians. In addition to this,
the need to counteract internal centrifugal trends in a country with so many
nationalities, made it imperative for Belgrade to be seen to cater openly and
publicly to each one’s particular national aspirations. Of course, we saw what
happens after the fall of the communism.
Certainly in so doing, it often gave
Fully aware of these internal problems and motives, the Greek side refrained,
as best as it could, from aggravating the situation by indulging in public
invective, unless openly provoked.
Unfortunately, EU (where
European foreign policy and a security policy; it is divided into small
powerless member-states and is manipulated; presently by the
might be by some other power. A main example can be the Yugoslavia case, which
has created serious other problems; like, the Kosovo,
the Great Albania, Muslim countries in Balkans, and the famous ‘Macedonia
Question’, with the arrogant Slavs of the South former Yugoslavia, Vardarska,
having expansive prospects towards Greece, the true Macedonia. This artificial nation is constituted by
800,000 Albanians, 500,000 Bulgarians, 100,000 Serbs, 100,000 Gypsies, 250,000
Greeks, and 300,000 Muslims of various nationalities. How can this mixture call
itself as ‘Macedonians’?
The most amazing was the alliance of
the enemies of
with these conquerors of the Greek Cyprus. Unfortunately, supporters of the
became their north ‘friends’, the pseudo-‘Macedonians’. This is a Sacrilegious
or Unholy Alliance (anieros summachia) among the enemies of the Hellenic
Orthodox civilization and its only true values and history.
Of course, there will be no future of this fabrication! ‘Europe
was felt, too, to have failed in its handling of the Yugoslav question, which
it saw virtually taken out of its hands by American intervention at the end of
1995, and the deployment of NATO’s forces as peace-keepers in a way
unanticipated by its founders. There were still then, therefore, major
obscurities over the future of European integration.’
Since, for more than half a century, the
grand imperial strategy with the aim of staking out the globe. The
leaders have shown themselves willing to follow the dream of dominance no
matter how high the risks. Their politics are of global control –from
unilateralism to the dismantling of international agreement to state terrorism-
cohere in a drive for hegemony that ultimately threatens our existence.
EU has been completely alienated from the Macedonian Problem, which
destabilizes its south-eastern borders.
It is well known and provable that, the
name of the
There is nowhere the word ‘
occupation the name of the region was ‘Banovina Vardarska’. But, Tito, in 15
August 1944, gave to this province the name ‘Makedonija’. Today, the true history
is falsified and delineated.
If we do not teach the true
history, in a few years no one will know anything about the historical truth.
The new generations will learn only what serves the future plan of this
suspicious global injustice.
Lately, in December 2007, the little state of Skopje started an embargo for the
Greek products because on the boxes it was written ‘FYRM’ and the customs,
there, return them back to Greece by saying that ‘there is no state with this
name, return to sender’.
But the problem, here, is that
Greek name ‘
the Greek history and symbols, which can be used only by
north geographical region and not by any other nation. They are, actually,
identity. This is a very serious crime and the international community must be
informed and isolate the robbers of history. Of course, Greeks have the right
and the obligation not to allow Skopjeans encroachers to use the Hellenic name
their artificial state.
Finally, after the dissolution of
anymore, but the so called ‘Macedonian question’ would have died at its birth
had hurried to inform international public opinion with the historic scientific
did not do this from superficiality or because it suited the politics of her
‘allies’ in Balkans or because she was certain that the world could not accept
this falsification of history. This was a major mistake on the part of
chair to West Europe,
continues its criminal tactics against
IV. Epilogue and Historic
The role of
Hellenism is historic and humanistic –and as time passes the vast majority of
people will realize it- because it was able many times in the past to re-orientate
humanity. Hellenism is a global movement of ancient moral philosophy combined
with the revealed truth of Christianity, the Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage
exists in the adoption of the moderation, the spiritual, the eternal, and the
truthful, and at the same time in the rejection of the exaggeration, the
materialistic, the transitory, and above all the bold lie. How many today
understand this unique culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture
(Hellinorthodoxos Paideia)? The race, which possesses this culture, has the
unique ability to reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless
degeneration of the human civilization left behind in every historic period.
The universal ideas of Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating
everlasting values. The principles of Hellenism that have changed the
intellectual trends of humanity throughout history, have been born to this
small geographical region, which for three thousand years obstinately resists
the undermining efforts of the ‘civilized’ world and the hordes of barbarians.
One representative of this race is Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Greek
commander of the army who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism.
As we have
mentioned above, the name ‘
was given by Tito and was used for this Yugoslav democracy only since 1945, but
it was identified for many centuries with Greek civilization and Greek history.
Their neighboring Greeks are reasonably disturbed when the name of
becomes subject to abuse by a region, which ethnologically is not Greek, but
Albanian, Vlach, Serb, Gypsy, Turkish, Slavic, and Bulgarian. It is
characteristic and suspicious that the two first countries recognized this new
stability of the region would be better served by the denial of recognition or
by saying to these people and the entire world the historic truth. Finally, if
Skopjeans feel that they are Macedonians, let them open their borders and unite
then, they will become Greeks and at the end they will be Macedonians.
Argyrios Varonides has said, ‘If the Skopje regime really seeks recognition and
respect as a democratic state, it needs first to learn how to respect history
and not to adopt old faded political arguments of past and collapsed regimes.
Do they really want to be Macedonians? Then, they are welcomed with open arms
to the Greek culture, which after all has been known, thanks to the
Thessalonian brothers Methodios and Kyrillos. Otherwise, they ridicule
themselves and become irritating.’ Consequently, for someone to become
Macedonian, he has, first, to become Greek because the true Macedonians were,
are, and will be only Greeks (Hellenes of North Greece).
It is clear when,
objectively examined, that the ‘Macedonian Question’ for
exist and the ‘Macedonian Problem’ is a non-issue.
The legal status quo of the northern borders of Greece are determined with
international treaties, like the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which ended the
second Balkan War, and the Peace Treaties at the end of the two World Wars, of
Neigy (1919) and of Paris (1947). Also,
and not an ethnic notion. In fact, only one country can identify herself, for
historical reasons, with
That country is
which has been inextricably linked with
For these reasons,
independent nation on her northern border, which will bear the Hellenic name ‘
course, this does not mean that
is against the Skopjeans right to establish their own independent nation and
have their own language, history, and traditions. All people have the right to
self-determination of their future; of course, this choice is confined within
the limits of international law (or legality).
use of the Macedonian name by any nation, which is in all other respects
Slavic. The terms ‘Macedonia-Macedonians’ and names of similar relevance belong
to Hellas and Hellenes (
and Greeks). They constitute
national and cultural inheritance and as such have been recorded in history for
many centuries before the appearance of Slavs in the area of Balkans and
especially in the area of
Large sections of
countries that dream the non-existent historically ‘Aegean Macedonia’ were
historically under Greek control and those countries that transgress against
are ‘inhospitable of the history’. Greeks will never cease, as the Greek race
to claim their lost national lands. It is their national duty to state matters
concerning Greek Macedonia, both inside and outside of
as they are to restore the historical truth that expediency, and misguided and
calculating interest continue to counterfeit and distort. It is necessary for
the preservation of their unique Greek Orthodox Culture, that every one be in
good conscience and that
must not be the subject of a transient alert or mobilization, but the constant
care of the current and future citizens of the historic country,
The fact, that the
ancient Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to dispute
any longer. The new archeological treasures in connection with linguistic
analyses and the findings of a great number of new inscriptions –all Greek–
with rich samples of Greek names prove that there is no discontinuation of
either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the Macedonians with the rest of
Also, the spreading of the Greek language and the Greek civilization and
culture to the entire known world from the Macedonians of the Alexander the
Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event. This event
is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to
light either at the large excavations of Pella, Vergina, Dion, and Sindos, or
in dozens less known, like in areas of Voion, Aeani, Kozani, Kastoria, Florina,
Edessa, Aridaea, Kilkis, Kavala, and of course, Thessaloniki and Chalkidiki
(Petralona), and others.
objective knowledge of history are opposed to
name as ‘
peoples are not properly a distinct nation, but belong, by language and
culture, to one or another, or perhaps all three of the neighboring Slavic
states (they have nothing in common with Hellenic Macedonians). Recognition of
is historically, scientifically, and morally wrong. Skopjean propaganda in the
New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and other papers around the world is
unconscionable, constant, and provocative. If Skopje were to give up the policy of
misappropriating the term ‘Macedonians’; if she were to adopt, for instance,
another term, (such as ‘Vardarians’ or ‘Dardanians’ or ‘Sclavinians’)
in order to designate the Slav inhabitants of Yugoslav Macedonia and possibly
certain émigré groups who share her views; the Greeks, naturally, would have no
quarrel with this state of affairs.
differences on these issues and
alienation, Greek-Serbian relations are positive on many domains as both sides
realize the mutual benefits of good, friendly, and cooperative and neighborly
relations. But both nations realized that
has been put between
by other powers, which are against these two homodox nations. Greeks, Serbians,
Bulgarians, Russians, Rumanians, and all the other Eastern European nations
have something in common that is not common to this world, we cannot find it
anywhere else. They are ‘brothers in Christ’, Christian Orthodox nations. We
will realize its historic and anti-scientific mistake and go back to its true
name, ‘Vardarska’. After the collapse of communism, the cosmos awaits these
peoples’ contribution to its history and
important role in their re-Christianization and promotion of peace and
prosperity in the Balkans, independent from the oppressive European Union.
chapters in books
The Greek Minority of
1918-1974, (Centre for Asia Minor Studies, Athens, Greece, 1992).
Jerome Blum, Rondo Cameron, and
Thomas G. Barnes, The European World: A
History, (Second Edition, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, U.S.A., 1970).
Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival:
America’s Quest for Global Dominance, (Henry Holt and Company,
Macedonian Question, (Hellenic Orthodox Church of the Annunciation,
Scranton, PA, U.S.A.,1992).
Kaloumenos, The Crucifixion of
Kebric, Greek People, (Second
Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company, Mountain View, California, U.S.A., 1997).
H. D. F. Kitto, The Greeks, (Penguin Books, London,
Great Britain, 1987).
Vassilis Kyratzopoulos, Unregistered Genocide:
E. C. Marchant
and O. J. Todd Xenophon: Memorabilia, Oeconomicus,
Symposium, Apology, (Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,1997).
Konstantinos Paparrigopoulos, The Most Instructive Deductions of the
History of the Hellenic Nation, (Hermias Editions,
Pedley, Greek Art and Archaeology,
(Second Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., U.S.A., 1998).
Tamara Rice, The Public and Private Life of Byzantines,
(translated by F. Voros, Papazisis Editions,
J. M. Roberts, The Penguin History
Athanassios K. Sakarellos, Old and New Calendar: Eighty Years from the
creation of the Calendar Schism, (
Kostas Sardelis, The Betrayed Tradition: The Greeks of Today,
(Volume B, ‘TINOS’ Editions, Athens, Greece, 1991).
Liana Souvaltzi, The Tomb og Alexander the Great at the Oasis
of Sioua, (Fourth Edition, Georgiades Editions,
A. A. Vasiliev, History of the
Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 1980).
Epaminondas A. Vranopoulos, History of
Hellenic History #5, (Pelasgos Editions, Athens, Greece, 1995).
jounals and newspapers
Alfred De Zayas,
Pogrom of 6-7 September 1955 in the Light of International Law’, Genocide Studies and Prevention, 2, 2, (August
Ioannis N. Kallianiotis,
‘European Union and Historical Hellas: The Fabricated Macedonian Question (A
Historic Perspective of the Problem)’, unpublished manuscript, (University of Scranton, March 2010),
Ioannis N. Kallianiotis,
‘Europe: A Swift Historical
Journey from the Ancient Times to the Current European Union’, unpublished
Ioannis N. Kallianiotis, Holy Hermitage of the Transfiguration of
Savior, Mourteris Oktonias,
Giannis X. Kouriannides, ‘The
Macedonian, the Political Situation and
the Patriotic Movement’, see www.e-grammes.gr, (last visited 4 November 2007).
Spyros Vryonis, The Mechanism of Catastrophe: The Turkish
Pogrom of September 6-7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community in
 See, Jones (1997).
 See, Kebric (1997) and Kitto (1987).
 See, Marchant and Todd (1997)
 See, Pedley (1998).
 But, at the same time,
faces a lot of opposition from heretics (heterodoxs) and other religions
(allodoxs) because of her traditional Orthodoxy and her superior Hellenic
 With their wisdom, like: ‘Moderation in all things’ (Pan metron
ariston), they set the foundations and advanced the world.
 See, Davies (1998, p. 95).
 See, Roberts (1997, p. 43).
 See, Roberts (1997, p. 47).
 See, Homer’s Iliad.
 The European civilization was a Hellenic-Orthodox civilization up
to the 9th century A.D., before its barbaric invasions from West and
North. See, Sakarellos (2005).
 See, Jones (1997), Kebric (1997), Vasiliev (1980), and
 See, Blum, Cameron, and Barnes (1970, p. 4).
 ‘Koinon twn Evoeon’. See, Vranopoulos (1995, p. 168).
 Exactly, what we currently see in
(European Union) with
behavior towards its small member-states.
Angela Merkel steered
toward a collision course with Euro-zone partners, calling for delinquent
Members (PIIGS) of the currency area to be expelled. (The Wall Street Journal, March 18, 2010, pp. A1 and A14).
 Unfortunately, in 1920s, Greeks faced a dreadful genocide and
unlawful expulsion from their ancestral homeland by Kemal pasha (a hospitable
of history from
after living in this region for 3,000 years.
 This is the Greek language (omoglosson), a unique instrument of
communication, used in sciences (mostly, in medicine, computers, etc.), and in
 Of course, Greek philosophers in the 5th century B.C.
doubted about these gods and introduced the ‘Unknown God’, for whom they built
 Completely different of what we see today with illicit antagonism,
drugs, exercise of power among nations, billions of dollars involvements, and
by taking the modern Olympic Games out
from the country of their origin (Olympia in Greece).
 For example, the most common sanctuaries were in
Delphi, Dodoni (or
etc. See also, Elizabeth R. Gebhard, The
Evolution of a Pan-Hellenic Sanctuary: From Archaeology towards History at
Isthmia [This article originally appeared in Greek Sanctuaries, New
Approaches (1993, pp.154-177), and is made available electronically with
the permission of the editors.]
 In 490 B.C., with the victorious battle of
Marathon and the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) with the sacrifice of
Leonidas (with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespeans, and 200 Thebeans); Athenians and
the other Greek states repelled Persian invasions and Athens assumed leadership
of Greek alliance. A year later (479 B.C.), the battle of
was Athenians’ greatest naval victory and the same were the battles of
 Socrates (469-399 B.C.) was sentenced in
strange gods” (kaina daimonia), when actually he was teaching about the ‘Unknown
God’ (the True God). This person, the wisest man in human history was saying:
“All I know is that I know nothing” (En eida oti ouden eida). Socrates, his
disciple (student) Plato and Plato’s own disciple Aristotle (the teacher of
Alexander the Great) laid the foundations of most branches of all disciplines.
Greek science was simply a branch of their general moral and ethical
philosophy. There is no possibility that something good can come from corrupted
people. [It is absolutely wrong to accuse ancient Greeks as immoral without any
proofs, as Davies (1998) is doing it easily.] With the coming of Christ, the
nation was the first to accept Him as the expected ‘Unknown God’. This is
exactly what we call ‘Hellenic-Orthodox civilization’, a combination of the
ancient moral and ethical Hellenic philosophy with the revealed Truth (Orthodox
Christianity). Xenophon, a disciple of Socrates, too, is the ‘Father of
Economics’ (Oeconomicos). The word ‘nomisma’ , meaning coin, was used by
Greeks, also specialization, futures contracts, and many other terms used in
Economics today. According to Herodotus, money, in the sense of coinage
(drachmas), began to circulate in the Aegean in the early 7th
century B.C. [The
coinage (silver coins since 670 B.C.), the first money in
Then, coins were minted in
and other Greek city-states and their colonies.
See, Davies (1998, p. 101).] In addition, Greek history-writing had its
triad of giants. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484-420 B.C.) is the ‘Father of
History’, Thucydides (455-401 B.C.) the Athenian and Xenophon (428-354 B.C.)
the Athenian, are great historians, too.
 Because as Hellenes, all these city-states had the same blood, the
same language, and the same religion (omaimon, omoglosson, kai omothriskon),
according to Herodotus, 5th century B.C. and many other similarities
as Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) refers them.
 There are many tribes in Asia today that they claim of being
descendants of Greeks, since that time of Alexander, like the Kallas in
 From 404 to 338 B.C. hegemonies of
359-336 B.C., the reign of Philip of Macedonia took place. From 338-323 B.C.
Alexander the Great conquered the entire Asia; he went to
too. The Old Persian Empire, which had invaded
by the Greek-Macedonians. In 322 B.C., Greek-Macedonians took over
Athenian democracy. From 323 to 272 B.C., Alexander’s successors sought
domination and the Hellenistic Kingdoms were created in
[The tomb of Alexander the Great was discovered by the Greek archeologist Liana
Souvaltzi. See, Souvaltzi (2002).] and of
sponsorship of Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic Kingdoms that succeeded
it, Greek culture spread over the whole Mediterranean world, and in the first
century B.C. achieved a thorough intellectual conquest of the imperial Roman
republic, its military conqueror.’ [Blum, Cameron, and Barns (1970, p.
 Even the Gospels were written in Greek language and with this
language the New Religion was spread to the entire known world of that time.
This was the language of the Greek King Alexander the Great and his
descendants. The non-Greek speaking nations were ‘barbarians’ outside the
Hellenic culture and paideia. This is the historic truth and not what some
pseudo-states anxiously try to distort the science of history.
 The proportion of Greeks that are Orthodox is 98% of the
population. Someone that is not Orthodox could not be considered Greek, too.
This is the homogeneity and uniqueness of these people.
 The ‘Great Idea’, a historically just and fair aspiration for the
nation that civilized the world, was ever in the hearts and minds of the heroic
and faithful revolutionists during the war of independence and the Greeks allover
the world today, but their ‘friends’ had different plans. Of course, nations do
not exist by chance; they have a mission to accomplish.
 See, Kallianiotis (2010).
yet paid the indemnities for the war damages that it inflicted to
and her citizens.
 Comintern was renamed as Cominform, the third International
Communist Union (The International Association of Communist Parties).
Kosovo, and Vardarska-Skopje (as ‘
 It is obvious that these poor puppets of this communist regime were
and unfortunately, they continue to be, betrayers of their own country. They do
not believe in any other values except to this wrong communist philosophy.
 But, with all this groundless propaganda, these people in Skopje
live in a delusion and they try with all their means to pass this historic lie
by carrying on all possible anti-scientific efforts to the rest of the world,
so they can satisfy their poor citizens with the creation of a pseudo-identity
for their artificial Slavo-Bulgaro-Albanian state, which has no relationship
with Macedonians or Alexander the Great. It is awful an entire state to be
based on a big lie! Our objective must be only the absolute truth.
 Of course, this is absolutely wrong, as Kostas Sardelis (1991, pp.
northern borders are cut with scissors from the one end to the other. There are
still thousands of Greeks in Serbian ‘
who methodically have been forced to become Slavs and the Greek governments
have never raised a minority question concerning them.
 Greeks are also opposing any synthetic name for
with the component ‘
the ‘help’ of the West (
EU, and NATO), was divided between 1991 and 2008 into seven states:
are using euro as their currencies, too, without even being members of the EU
 Kosovo said the IMF voted to accept it as a member, a major but
unfair step to global recognition of this Serbian region as an independent
state. See, The Wall Street Journal,
6 May 2009, pp. A1 and A8. On 2 November 2009, Albanians in Kosovo made the
unveiling of a statue of Bill Clinton, who invaded
Albanians that abused the Serbian hospitality. If this is justice, what can be
the absolute injustice? TV News ALTER,
2 November 2009.
 See, Kallianiotis (1992).
 See, Giannis X.
Kouriannides, ‘The Macedonian, the Political Situation and the Patriotic
Movement’, e-grammes.gr, 4 November
 TV News ERT, 17 November
 See, Roberts (1997, p. 652).
 See, Chomsky (2004).
 See, Encyclopedia
SOPENA-Nuevo Diccionario Ilustrado de la Lingua Espanola,
 See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59) for the names of the people of
this region: ‘Vardarians or Dardanians or Sclavinians’, but never
 See also, e-grammes.gr/13
 That was the reaction of this artificial nation, which is using
illegally the Greek name ‘
for its name.
must have put an embargo since 1991 and to continue it until they will change
their name. Of course, the trend is that this state very soon will be part of
This is the choice of the dark powers. See, e-grammes.gr,
‘Bad News from
 The Wall Street Journal, 7
March 2008, p. A1.
 Professor Stephen G. Miller of Berkley University sent a letter to
the Archaeology Magazine, where he
proves that the region where Skopje is today was Paeonia and Skopjeans have no
right to call their nation ‘Macedonia’ and themselves ‘Macedonians’. See, Christianiki Bibliographia, Issue 42,
Year 38, January-March 2009, pp. 21-23.
 There will be a series of articles by the author examining the
Macedonian question from these perspectives.
 The question here is, why are these papers and the majority of the
other news media that determine public opinion so biased? How can we trust
their subjective news and their prejudice information? Of course, in academics,
we have to search only for the truth and nothing else.
 These names have been used in the past for the inhabitants of
that region. The ancient Macedonians annexed Paeonia, but they never annexed
the region around Scupi (
which belonged to Dardania. The historically correct name for
FYRM) was ‘Vardarska or
Skoplye’. See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59).
Ioannis N. Kallianiotis